Money as Raw Material for Beads
This is a Manilla, named for the Portuguese word for "bracelet" because of its shape.
It was popular on the West Coast of Africa because it was a source of bronze used in
the lost wax casting of the region to make beads, pendants and other art objects.
When the quality of the metal was bad, the person distributing them might be in for a shock. A German trader named Andreas Josua Ulsheimer discovered this on the coast
of Cameroon in 1603. He was convinced he was going to be eaten for such a fraud.
He wasn't; they were only scaring him.
The Maria Theresa Thaler
Obverse and Reverse
. Thaler (from the German meaning "valley") became "dollar," a currency used in many countries aside from the US. The great queen died in 1780, but her wonderful coin never did. It has been reissued in Austria and elsewhere ever since, always carrying the 1780 date. It is widely used by jewelers as raw silver because its fineness is usually quite reliable. I bought this one from a jeweler in the Middle East
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